The Bald Eagle has been the national emblem of the United States since 1782 and a spiritual symbol for native people for far longer than that. These regal birds aren’t really bald, but their white-feathered heads gleam in contrast to their chocolate-brown body and wings. Look for them soaring in solitude, chasing other birds for their food, or gathering by the hundreds in winter. Once endangered by hunting and pesticides, Bald Eagles have flourished under protection. [ facts source: Cornell University – All About Birds ]
On April 12th, 1996, the Fish and Game Department brought Bilfred to the Peace River Wildlife Center. The American Bald Eagle was found injured in the Punta Gorda Landfill on U.S. 41 South. The age of the Eagle was two or three years old.
Upon an examination, it was found that there had been impact to the left wing which subsequently became infected. The treatment for the infection was unsuccessful necessitating a complete amputation of the left wing. Dr. Gingerich performed the surgery on June 13th, 1996.
A newspaper article was written about the Eagle including the fact that a suitable habitat was not available for the bird. A local resident, who preferred to remain anonymous, donated $5,000 for a flight cage. She wished the Eagle to be named “Bilfred”, in honor of her deceased husband. The benefactress has remained a long time supporter of the Peace River Wildlife Center
In May of 2000, DNA testing was done and Bilfred was found to be a female and is still a member of the Peace River Wildlife Center.
Be sure to stop by the Eagle Habitat and see “Bilfred” on your next visit.
Adopt Bilfred Today!
Captain Arthur’s Story
On Saturday, January 25th, 2001, Wilburt Sanchez found an injured nestling Bald Eagle in the Prairie Creek section of Port Charlotte. Previous to this date, Mr. Sanchez had been watching two Eagles near his friends home in Prairie Creek. At 5:00 p.m. on Saturday, January 27th, he noticed two Eagles circling the area over their nest. He investigated and found that the old tree where the nest was situated had fallen. He found two nestling Eagles at the site, one dead and the other injured. Mr. Sanchez brought the injured nestling to the Peace River Wildlife Center.
The Eaglet was found to have several fractures to the radius and ulna of the left wing. Osteomyelitis (infection) was also present indicating that the bird’s wing had been injured for a period of time before it had been discovered. The wing could not be repaired and the distal part of the nestling’ wing was amputated.
The selection of a name for the Eagle was presented to the Pre-K class of 20 children and the third grade class of 34 children of St. Charles Borromeo Catholic School. The name was to include the name “Arthur”, to honor Art Berglund who was a volunteer responsible for building cages, remodeling buildings, repairing plumbing and creating new habitats. Tony Uhler-Barrett, a 3rd grade student came up with the name “Captain Arthur” and received a stuffed Eagle from the gift shop.
Be sure to stop by the Eagle Habitat and see “Captain Arthur” on your next visit.
Adopt Captain Arthur Today!
Rather than do their own fishing, Bald Eagles often go after other creatures’ catches. A Bald Eagle will harass a hunting Osprey until the smaller raptor drops its prey in midair, where the eagle swoops it up. A Bald Eagle may even snatch a fish directly out of an Osprey’s talons. Fishing mammals (even people sometimes) can also lose prey to Bald Eagle piracy. See an example here. Had Benjamin Franklin prevailed, the U.S. emblem might have been the Wild Turkey. In 1784, Franklin disparaged the national bird’s thieving tendencies and its vulnerability to harassment by small birds. “For my own part”, he wrote, “I wish the Bald Eagle had not been chosen the Representative of our Country. He is a Bird of bad moral Character. He does not get his Living honestly. Besides he is a rank Coward: The little King Bird not bigger than a Sparrow attacks him boldly and drives him out of the District.” Bald Eagles suffered in the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska. An estimated 247 Bald Eagles died from oil exposure and population levels in the Sound decreased by almost four percent the following year. The local population returned to pre-spill levels by 1995. Sometimes even the national bird has to cut loose. Bald Eagles have been known to play with plastic bottles and other objects pressed into service as toys. One observer witnessed six Bald Eagles passing sticks to each other in midair. The largest Bald Eagle nest on record, in St. Petersburg, Florida, was 2.9 meters in diameter and 6.1 meters tall. Another famous nest in Vermilion, Ohio was shaped like a wine glass and weighed almost two metric tons. It was used for 34 years until the tree blew down. Immature Bald Eagles spend the first four years of their lives in nomadic exploration of vast territories and can fly hundreds of miles per day. Some young birds from Florida have wandered north as far as Michigan, and birds from California have reached Alaska. Bald Eagles can live a long time, with a longevity record of 28 years in the wild and 36 years in captivity. Bald Eagles occasionally hunt cooperatively, with one individual flushing prey towards another.
Bald Eagles typically nest in forested areas adjacent to large bodies of water, staying away from heavily developed areas when possible. Bald Eagles are tolerant of human activity when feeding, and may congregate around fish processing plants, dumps, and below dams where fish concentrate. For perching, Bald Eagles prefer tall, mature coniferous or deciduous trees that afford a wide view of the surroundings. In winter, Bald Eagles can also be seen in dry, open uplands if there is access to open water for fishing.
Fish of many kinds constitute the centerpiece of the Bald Eagle diet (common examples include salmon, herring, shad, and catfish), but these birds eat a wide variety of foods depending on what’s available. They eat birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates such as crabs, and mammals including rabbits and muskrats. They take their prey live, fresh, or as carrion. Bald Eagles sometimes gorge, ingesting a large amount of food and digesting it over several days. They can also survive fasting for many days, even weeks.
Bald Eagles build some of the largest of all bird nests typically 5 to 6 feet in diameter and 2 to 4 feet tall, and ranging in shape from cylindrical to conical to flat, depending on the supporting tree. Both sexes bring materials to the nest, but the female does most of the placement. They weave together sticks and fill in the cracks with softer material such as grass, moss, or cornstalks. The inside of the nest is lined first with lichen or other fine woody material, then with downy feathers and sometimes sprigs of greenery. Ground nests are built of whatever’s available, such as kelp and driftwood near coastal shorelines. Nests can take up to three months to build, and may be reused (and added to) year after year.
Bald Eagles nest in trees except in regions where only cliff faces or ground sites are available. They tend to use tall, sturdy conifers that protrude above the forest canopy, providing easy flight access and good visibility. In southern parts of their range, Bald Eagles may nest in deciduous trees, mangroves, and cactus. It’s unknown whether the male or the female takes the lead in selecting a nest site. Nests are typically built near the trunk, high up in the tree but below the crown (unlike Osprey nests).
Bald Eagles are powerful fliers; soaring, gliding, and flapping over long distances. In one of several spectacular courtship displays, a male and female fly high into the sky, lock talons, and cartwheel downward together, breaking off at the last instant to avoid crashing to earth. Bald Eagles frequently harass birds including Ospreys and other eagles to steal their food, and occasionally do the same to mammals such as river or sea otters. On the ground, Bald Eagles walk in an awkward, rocking gait. Capable of floating, a Bald Eagle may use its wings to “row” over water too deep for wading. Though often solitary, Bald Eagles congregate by the scores or even the hundreds at communal roosts and feeding sites, particularly in winter. These groups can be boisterous, with birds jostling for position and bickering over prey. During breeding season you may see Bald Eagles defending their territories from a variety of intruders, including raptors and ravens, coyotes and foxes. When feeding at carcasses, Bald Eagles may push Black and Turkey Vultures out of the way; other species including ravens, coyotes, bobcats, and dogs sometimes hold their own. Bald Eagles are often harassed or chased by their fellow raptors and by songbirds including blackbirds, crows, and flycatchers.
The Bald Eagle’s recovery is a spectacular conservation success story. Once abundant in North America, the species became rare in the mid-to-late 1900’s the victim of trapping, shooting, and poisoning as well as pesticide-caused reproductive failures. In 1978 the bird was listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act. Since 1980, gentler treatment by humans along with the banning of DDT (the bird’s main pesticide threat) have led to a dramatic resurgence. By the late 1990’s, breeding populations of Bald Eagles could be found throughout most of North America. In June 2007, the bird’s recovery prompted its removal from the Endangered Species list. Continuing threats to Bald Eagle populations include lead poisoning from ammunition in hunter-shot prey, collisions with motor vehicles and stationary structures, and development-related destruction of shoreline nesting, perching, roosting and foraging habitats.
[ facts source: Cornell University – All About Birds ]